Pfenninger, S. E., J. Festman and D. Singleton. (in press). Second Language Acquisition and Lifelong Learning. Second Language Acquisition Research series, eds. S. Gass & A. Mackey. London: Routledge.



Hundt, M., S. E. Pfenninger and S. Mollin. (accepted pending revisions). Psycholinguistic perspectives on language change. In: M. Kytö and E. Smitterberg (eds.), New Cambridge History of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP. 

Pfenninger, S. E. (in press). Conclusion and envoi: Language acquisition at the intersection of sociolinguistics and World Englishes research. In: S. Buschfeld, M. Vida-Mannl, M. Schmalz & T. Brato (eds.) Children, Adolescents and World Englishes: Rethinking Paradigms and Approaches. De Gruyter.

Pfenninger, S.E. & D. Singleton. (2022). Age. In S. Li, P. Hiver, M. Papi (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Individual Differences. New York and London: Routledge, 251-266. ISBN 9781032219141



Kliesch, M., S. E. Pfenninger, M. Wieling, S. Stark and M. Meyer (2021). Cognitive trajectories of older foreign language learners – Insights from an intensive longitudinal intervention study. Applied Linguistics


Pfenninger, S. E. and J. Festman. (2021). Psycholinguistics. In T. Gregersen and S. Mercer (eds), The Routledge Handbook of the Psychology of Language Learning and Teaching. Routledge.


Maurer U., Jost L. B., Pfenninger S. E., Eberhard-Moscicka A. K. (2021). Effects of reading skills and bilingualism on early foreign language learning in primary school children. Reading and Writing 34(10), 2673-2689. doi: 10.1007/s11145-021-10166-1


Werth, A., L. Bülow, M. Schiegg and S. E. Pfenninger. (eds.) (2021) Intra-individual variation in language. DeGruyter.


Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton (2021). Is there a best age for second language learning? Evidence from across the lifespan. In: R. Woore and E. Macaro (eds.), Debates in Modern Language Education. London: Routledge. ISBN: 9781003008361


Kliesch, M. and S. E. Pfenninger (2021). Cognitive and socio-affective predictors of L2 micro-development in late adulthood: A longitudinal intervention study. Modern Language Journal 105(1), 237-266.

Pfenninger, S. E. (2021). About the INTER and the INTRA in age-related research: Evidence from a longitudinal CLIL study with dense time serial measurements. Linguistics Vanguard. doi:

Zullo, D., S. E. Pfenninger and D. Schreier. (2021). A Pan-Atlantic 'Multiple Model' Belt? American Speech 96(1), 7–44. doi:

Bülow, L. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2021) Introduction: Reconciling approaches to intra-individual variation in psycholinguistics and variationist sociolinguistics. Special issue on "Intra-speaker variation across time and space – Sociolinguistics meets psycholinguistics". Linguistics Vanguard. doi:

Pfenninger, S. E. (2021). Emergent bilinguals in a digital world: A dynamic analysis of long-term L2 development in (pre)primary school children. International Review of Applied LinguisticsI IRAL (special issue on "CDST & Transdisciplinary Research Methods", eds. P. Hiver and A. Al-Hoorie).

Johnson, T. and S. E. Pfenninger (2020). Tasty words: Using frame semantics to enhance consumer liking of potato chips and apples. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 31: 79– 94.


Pfenninger, S. E. (2020). Age meets multilingualism: Influence of starting age on L3 acquisition across different learner populations. In Camilla Bardel & Laura Sánchez (eds.), Third language acquisition: Age, proficiency and multilingualism, 167–207. Berlin: Language Science Press. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4138745


Pfenninger, S. E. (2020). The dynamic multicausality of age of first bilingual language exposure: Evidence from a longitudinal CLIL study with dense time serial measurement. Modern Language Journal 104(3), 662-686.




Pfenninger, S. E. and H. Neuser. (2019). Inferential statistics in data analysis. The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (eds. Heath Rose and Jim McKinley). Routledge.
ISBN: 9781138501140.

Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2019). A critical review of research relating to the learning of additional languages in the third age. Language Teaching 52(4). DOI:

Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2019). Making the most of an early L2 starting age. Journal of Language Teaching for Young Learners 1(2), 111–138.

Pfenninger, S. E. and R. Watts. (2019). English and German in Switzerland. In R. Hickey (ed.), English in the German-speaking World. Cambridge: CUP, 315–333.


Book review of: Deshors, Sandra C., Sandra Götz and Samantha Laporte. (2016). Rethinking linguistic creativity in non-native Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. In: English World Wide 40(2). 

Singleton, D. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2019).  Exploring a poorly understood variable: An agenda for classroom research on the age factor. Language Teaching 52(1), 111-127.

Singleton, D. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2019).  Bilingualism in midlife. In A. De Houwer and L. Ortega (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism. Cambridge: CUP, 76-100.

Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2019).  Starting age overshadowed: The primacy of differential environmental and family support effects on L2 attainment in an instructional context. Language Learning 69:S1, 207–234.


Pfenninger, S. E. and S. Polz. (2018). Foreign language learning in the third age: A pilot feasibility study on cognitive, socio-affective and linguistic drivers and benefits in relation to previous bilingualism of the learner. Journal of the European Second Language Association (JESLA), 2(1), 1–13.


Mattuzzi, M. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2018). The language-cognition-affect interface in young college student stroke survivors with aphasia. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 28(3), 465-479. doi: 10.1111/ijal.12222

Singleton, D. & S. E. Pfenninger. (2018).  L2 acquisition in childhood, adulthood and old age: Misreported and under-researched dimensions of the age factor. Journal of Second Language Studies 1(2), 254-275.

Singleton, D. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2018).  The age debate: A critical overview. In S. Garton and F. Copland (eds.),The Routledge Handbook of Teaching English to Young Learners. Routledge. 


Singleton, D. and S. E. Pfenninger (2018).  L2 proficiency as a function of cultural identity in interlingual couples.Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition (TAPSLA) 4(1), 7-22.

Kliesch, M., N. Giroud, S. E. Pfenninger and M. Meyer. (2018). Research on second language acquisition in old adulthood: What we have and what we need. In D. Gabrys-Barker (ed.). Third age learners of foreign languages. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 48-76.




Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton (2017). The ‘earlier=better’ assumption through the ages: On the origin and history of a myth in SLA and its pedagogical consequences. In A. Ubermann (ed.), The ambivalence of age: divergent age effects in different language-learning environments. Bern: Peter Lang.


Pfenninger, S. E. and J. Lendl (2017). Transitional woes: On the impact of L2 input continuity from primary to secondary school. Special Issue, T. Angelovska (Ed.), “L2 Grammar Acquisition”, Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 7(3), 443-470.


Pfenninger, S. E. (2017). Not so individual after all: An ecological approach to age as an individual difference variable in a classroom. Special Issue, K. de Bot (Ed.), “Individual differences in SLA”, Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 7(1), 19-46.


Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2017). Beyond Age Effects in Instructional L2 Learning: Revisiting the Age Factor. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. ISBN: 9781783097616

Pfenninger, S. E. and J. Navracsics (eds.). (2017). Future Research Directions for Applied Linguistics. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 

Pfenninger, S. E. and J. Navracsics (2017). Introduction. In: S. E. Pfenninger and J. Navracsics (eds.). Future research directions for applied linguistics (pp. 1-14). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 


Pfenninger, S. E. and J. Navracsics (2017). Concluding Thoughts: A Road Map for Future Research in Applied Linguistics. In: S. E. Pfenninger and J. Navracsics (eds.). Future research directions for applied linguistics (pp. 286-292). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 


Hundt, M., S. Mollin and S. E. Pfenninger (eds.). (2017). The Changing English Language: Psycholinguistic Perspectives (Studies in English Language Series). Cambridge: CUP. ISBN: 9781316091746

Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2017). Second language acquisition and age effects: The research conundrum. In K. Cergol Kovačević, Kristina and S. L. Udier (eds). Applied Linguistic Research and Methodology: Proceedings from the CALS conference 2015. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. 


Hundt, M., S. Mollin and S. E. Pfenninger. (2017). Language history meets psychology. In: The Changing English  Language: Psycholinguistic Perspectives  (pp. 1-18). Cambridge: CUP. 


Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2017). Recent advances in quantitative methods in age-related research.In: S. E. Pfenninger and J. Navracsics (eds.). Future research directions for applied linguistics (pp. 101-119). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 




Eberhard-Moscicka, A. K., L. B. Jost, L. V. Fehlbaum, S. E. Pfenninger, and U. Maurer.  (2016). Temporal dynamics of early visual word processing - early versus late N1 sensitivity in children and adults. Neuropsychologia 91, 509-518. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.09.014

Book review of: Murphy, V. and M. Evangelou (2016). (eds) Early Childhood Education in English for Speakers of Other Languages. London: British Council. In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Published online on 26/8/2016.


Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2016). The age factor in the foreign language class: what do learners think? Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition (TAPSLA) 2(1), 7-23.

Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2016). Age of onset, socio-affect and cross-linguistic influence: A long-term classroom study. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics (VIAL) 13, 147-179. 


Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2016). Affect trumps age: A person-in-context relational view of age and motivation in SLA. Second Language Research 32(3), 311–345.

Pfenninger, S. E. (2016). All good things come in threes: Early English learning, CLIL and motivation in Switzerland. Cahiers de l‘ILSL 48. Special Issue, Patricia Ronan (ed.). “Perspectives on English in Switzerland”, 119-147. 


Singleton, D. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2016). Reporting on politically sensitive issues: The case of telling the truth about early L2 instruction. In H. Rose and J. McKinley (eds.), Doing Real Research in Applied Linguistics (pp. 214-224). London: Routledge. 


Pfenninger, S. E. and D. Singleton. (2016). Reading for remembering: On the long-term impact of starting age on retention and recall of target language input. In D. Galajda, P. Zakrajewski and M. Pawlak (eds.). Researching second language learning and teaching from a psycholinguistic perspective. Studies in honor of Danuta Gabryś-Barker. Berlin: Springer. 




Pfenninger, S. E. (2015). MSL in the Digital Age: Effects and effectiveness of computer-mediated intervention for FL learners with dyslexia. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 5(18), 109–133. doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2015.5.1.6. 


Singleton, D. and S. E. Pfenninger. (2015). Insights from a mixed methods approach with respect to age and long-term instructed language learning. In J. Navracsics and Sz. Bátyi (eds.) First and second language: Interdisciplinary approaches. Studies in Psycholinguistics 6. Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 11-21. 




Pfenninger, S. E. et al. (eds.) (2014). Contact, Variation and Change in the History of English  (Studies in Language Companion Series). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 

Pfenninger, S. E. (2014). The literacy factor in the Optimal Age Debate: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.  International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Prepublished November 5, 2014; doi: 10.1080/13670050.2014.972334. 


Pfenninger, S. E. (2014). The misunderstood variable: Age effects as a function of type of instruction.Special Issue, D. Singleton (Ed.), “A ge and More”, Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 4(3), 529–556. doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.3.8


Pfenninger, S. E. (2014). Taking L3 learning by the horns: Benefits of computer-mediated intervention for dyslexic school children. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. Prepublished September 30, 2014. doi: 10.1080/17501229.2014.959962. 


Pfenninger, S. E. et al. (2014). At the crossroads of language change, variation and contact. In: S. E. Pfenninger et al. (eds.). Contact, Variation and Change in the History of English  (Studies in Language Companion Series). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1–8. doi: 10.1075/slcs.159.01pfe 




Pfenninger, S. E. (2013). Quadrilingual advantages: Do-support in bilingual vs. multilingual learners.  International Journal of Multilingualism 11(2), 143–163. doi: 10.1080/14790718.2013.782032. 

Pfenninger, S. E. (2013). Þær wæs vs. thâr was: Old English and Old High German existential constructions with adverbs of place. Evidence from the history of English. In G. Diewald, L. Kahlas-Tarkka, & I. Wischer (eds.), Comparative Studies in Early Germanic Languages: With a Focus on Verbal Categories (Studies in Language Companion Series). Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 263–287. 


Pfenninger, S. E. (2013). On acquisition, age and articles in multilingual Switzerland. In J. Mihaljević Djigunović, & M. Medved Krajnović (eds.), UZRT 2012: Empirical Studies in English Applied Linguistics. Zagreb: FF Press, 22–35.  





Pfenninger, S. E. (2012). On the effectiveness of early implicit classroom learning. Evidence from morphology.  ELT Research  26, 30–32. 


Pfenninger, S. E. (2012). Moving towards an earlier age of onset of L2 learning: A comparative analysis of motivation in Swiss classrooms. In D. Britain and A. Kern Stähler (eds.). English on the Move: Mobilities in Literature and Language  (Swiss Papers in English Literature and Linguistics 27). Tübingen: Narr, 15–30. 





Pfenninger, S. E. (2011). Age effects on the acquisition of nominal and verbal inflections in an instructed setting. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching  1(3), 401–420. doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2011.1.3.5





Pfenninger, S. E. (2009). Grammaticalization Paths of English and High German Existential Constructions. Bern: Peter Lang.